Crude oil and natural gas products have to be moved from the production facilities to the refineries and then to the consumers. Forms of land transport are pipelines, trucks and rail, while forms of sea transport are tankers and barges. Transportation is a particularly important sector in the petroleum industry because it connects supply with demand.
A key driver of change in the transportation sector is global terrorism and restrictive security measures taken as precautions to prevent attacks. Safety issues such as spills, leakages and emissions, as well as health and safety and environmental legislations implemented by corresponding governments, can also have a detrimental effect on the transportation and distribution of oil and gas. Weather conditions, price fluctuation, supply and demand, long distances, and remote locations are additional parameters that drive change in oil and gas transportation.